Digital transformation in Afghan universities: A case study of challenges and opportunities


  • Laiba Shahzad Psychology and Educational Sciences Faculty, Kabul University, Afghanistan
  • Tamanna Quraishi The University of People, United States of America
  • Frohida Mohammadi Civil Engineering Faculty, Baghlan University, Baghlan, Afghanistan
  • Madina Ahmadi Engineering Faculty, Kabul University, Kabul, Afghanistan
  • Suhaila Atayee Public policy and administration Faculty, Balkh University, Balkh, Afghanistan
  • Hafiza Bahram Education Faculty, Samangan University, Samangan, Afghanistan



Digital transformation, Afghan universities, Challenges, Opportunities, Higher education


This study delves into the demographic composition of students at WO University across four faculties: Medical, Economics, Computer Science, and Education. Employing a cross-sectional research design, data is collected at a singular time to capture a snapshot of the student population. Stratified sampling ensures proportional representation from each faculty, resulting in a sample size of 150 students. Institutional records provide accurate counts of students within each faculty, along with their corresponding age ranges. Descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages, are utilized to analyze the demographic data. The findings offer insights into the distribution of students across faculties and age brackets, providing a comprehensive overview of the student demographics at WO University. By understanding the demographic makeup of the student body, institutions can tailor their policies and support services to effectively meet their students' diverse needs. This study contributes to the existing literature by offering empirical evidence on the demographic characteristics of students in higher education institutions, thereby informing strategic decision-making processes within academic settings.


Akour, M., & Alenezi, M. (2022). Higher education future in the era of digital transformation. Education Sciences, 12(11), 784.

Alhubaishy, A., Aljuhani, A. The challenges of instructors’ and students’ attitudes in digital transformation: A case study of Saudi Universities. Educ Inf Technol 26, 4647–4662 (2021).

Argüelles-Cruz, AJ., García-Peñalvo, FJ., Ramírez-Montoya, MS. (2021). Education in Latin America: Toward the Digital Transformation in Universities. In: Burgos, D., Branch, J.W. (eds) Radical Solutions for Digital Transformation in Latin American Universities. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. Springer, Singapore.

Bogdandy, B., Tamas, J., & Toth, Z. (2020, September). Digital transformation in education during COVID-19: A case study. In 2020 11th IEEE international conference on cognitive infocommunications (CoginfoCom) (pp. 000173-000178). IEEE.

Cantú-Ortiz, F. J., Galeano Sánchez, N., Garrido, L., Terashima-Marin, H., & Brena, R. F. (2020). An artificial intelligence educational strategy for the digital transformation. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM), 14, 1195-1209. Cantú-Ortiz, F.J., Galeano Sánchez, N., Garrido, L. et al. An artificial intelligence educational strategy for the digital transformation. Int J Interact Des Manuf 14, 1195–1209 (2020).

Hakan, K. Ö. (2020). Digital transformation in higher education: a case study on strategic plans. Высшее образование в России, (3), 9-23.

Hakimi, M., Katebzadah, S., & Fazil, A. W. (2024). Comprehensive Insights into E-Learning in Contemporary Education: Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Best Practices. Journal of Education and Teaching Learning (JETL), 6(1), 86-105.

Hakimi, M., Quchi, M. M., Hasas, A., & Fazil, A. W. (2024). The Transformative Power of Information and Communication Technology in Empowering Women in Afghanistan. Journal of Social Science Utilizing Technology, 2(1), 275-287.

Hashemi, A. (2021). Online teaching experiences in higher education institutions of Afghanistan during the COVID-19 outbreak: Challenges and opportunities. Cogent Arts & Humanities, 8(1), 1947008.

Khaliqyar, K. Q., Katebzadah, S., & Hakimi, M. (2024). A Comprehensive Analysis of the Effectiveness of AI Platforms in Improving Student Educational Skills. International Journal of Integrated Science and Technology, 1(6), 883-898.

Laitkep, D., & Stofkova, K. R. (2020). Digital transformation challenges and opportunities in university education. EDULEARN20 Proceedings, 8048-8055.

Maltese, V. (2018). Digital transformation challenges for universities: Ensuring information consistency across digital services. Cataloging & classification quarterly, 56(7), 592-606.

Mohamed Hashim, M., Tlemsani, I. & Duncan Matthews, R. A sustainable University: Digital Transformation and Beyond. Educ Inf Technol 27, 8961–8996 (2022).

Nurhas, I., Aditya, B. R., Jacob, D. W., & Pawlowski, J. M. (2022). Understanding the challenges of rapid digital transformation: the case of COVID-19 pandemic in higher education. Behaviour & Information Technology, 41(13), 2924-2940.

Quaicoe, J. S., Ogunyemi, A. A., & Bauters, M. L. (2023). School-based digital innovation challenges and way forward conversations about digital transformation in education. Education Sciences, 13(4), 344.

Quraishi, T., Hakimi, N., Hakimi, M., Safi, M., Akrami, F., Akrami, M., ... & Nejrabi, Z. (2024). Exploring the Enhancement of Educational Systems through Information and Communication Technology: An Investigative Study. Journal of Social and Humanities, 2(1), 21-30.

Rahimi, N., Rashidi, A., Hakimi, M., & Shirpoor, M. (2024). Navigating E-Governance and ICT Dynamics in Afghanistan Higher Education. International Journal of Scientific Multidisciplinary Research, 2(2), 137-152.

Rizvi, Y. S., & Nabi, A. (2021). Transformation of learning from real to virtual: an exploratory-descriptive analysis of issues and challenges. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 14(1), 5-17.

Rodríguez-Abitia, G., & Bribiesca-Correa, G. (2021). Assessing digital transformation in universities. Future Internet, 13(2), 52.

Serna Gómez, J.H., Díaz-Piraquive, F.N., Muriel-Perea, Y.d., Díaz Peláez, A. (2021). Advances, Opportunities, and Challenges in the Digital Transformation of HEIs in Latin America. In: Burgos, D., Branch, J.W. (eds) Radical Solutions for Digital Transformation in Latin American Universities. Lecture Notes in Educational Technology. Springer, Singapore.

Youtie, J., & Shapira, P. (2008). Building an innovation hub: A case study of the transformation of university roles in regional technological and economic development. Research policy, 37(8), 1188-1204.






How to Cite

Shahzad, L., Quraishi, T., Mohammadi, F., Ahmadi, M., Atayee, S., & Bahram, H. (2024). Digital transformation in Afghan universities: A case study of challenges and opportunities . Sekumpul: Journal of Multidisciplinary Education Sciences, 2(1), 1–10.